A few rules for watering

A few rules for watering

It is necessary to remember a few rules for irrigating plants: it is better to water less often (about 2 times a day), but plentifully. It is believed that ten liters of water poured by the irrigation system per square meter can completely moisten the soil layer to a depth of about 10 cm. the entire root system does not reach at all, a hard crust appears on the surface, it increases the evaporation of water and interferes with the full respiration of the soil. In addition, all superficial roots also develop well in plants, they will suffer during the next drought. You also need to know that the bulk of the roots are in the soil layer at a depth of about 20-25 cm, and in order to completely wet it, the irrigation system needs to pour about 25 liters of water per 1 m2. Automatic lawn watering is slightly different, any lawn grass needs to be watered a little less - the entire root system of the lawn falls to a depth of about 15 cm, but during a period of intense heat, refreshing watering can be carried out. All irrigation rates are completely dependent on the very mechanical composition of the soil - light soils are often watered and not very plentiful.

Irrigation water temperature. The water temperature, which will be below 10-12 degrees, causes shock in plants and weakens them, for this reason, watering the lawn and plants directly from a well or well is undesirable. It will be optimal if, when watering the plants, the water temperature is approximately equal to or slightly higher than the soil temperature. To do this, use storage tanks, the volume of which is from 200 to 5000 liters, everything will depend on the irrigation area. There, all the water warms up and settles to the ambient temperature. In order to create the necessary pressure in the automatic irrigation system, they are placed a little higher than the surface by about 2-3 meters or more. The difference in all levels somewhere in one meter completely creates about 0.1 bar of pressure. A huge number of sprayers of the automatic irrigation system can operate at a minimum pressure of 2-3 bar, for this reason, special additional pumps are often simply installed in these tanks.

If your yard has automatic watering, then there is no need to worry that the water for garden irrigation, which enters the irrigation system directly from deep artesian wells, will be very cold to irrigate. The resulting pressure in the irrigation system is 2.5 - 3.5 atm. ejects water dust from sprinklers with great speed, for this reason the water of plants reaches already heated, comparable to the usual temperature of any rainwater. The main thing that will need to be paid attention to when watering plants is the exclusion of a sharp, destructive, mainly contrast between the temperature of the upper layer of the territory and the temperature of the water.

The amount of water available to plants depends on many factors. Including the type and depth of the soil, the depth of the root system, the rate of water loss during evaporation, the temperature and the rate of moisture entering the soil.

The rate of water extraction from the soil is a function of root concentration. The deeper the root system, the lower the speed. More than 40% of water is extracted from the upper root layer.

The water entering the soil moves at the rate at which the field capacity is created. The movement of water in the soil from the bottom up is carried out by capillary forces. The loss of water to evaporation affects only the upper layers of the soil. During a period of prolonged drought, it is easy to recognize plants with a shallow root system.

The correct watering time is especially important for the development of vegetable crops and obtaining the maximum yield. In addition, it is necessary to observe the rules of watering. For example, for water to penetrate to the root system, it is not enough just to moisten the soil surface. According to the observations of experts, a 3-cm layer of water penetrates the soil to a depth of 25 cm. To soak a plot of 0.5 hectares to such a depth, 130,000 liters of water should be spent. During a prolonged drought, frequent minor waterings do not benefit the plants, since the water does not reach the main volume of the root system, and a hard crust appears on the ground. At the same time, superficial lateral roots are formed in plants, which also suffer during prolonged dry weather.

Sandy soils dry out much faster than clay soils and require more frequent watering. To find out how things are with the soil moisture in the area, it is necessary to dig a hole 20-30 cm deep with a scoop. If the soil at this depth is slightly wet or dry, watering should be done immediately.

Most of all, moisture is required for vegetable crops during intensive growth, that is, from late spring to mid-summer, when the development of plants is determined precisely by the availability of water. In late summer, excess moisture can harm some crops. For example, melons and watermelons are not watered during the ripening period. Tomatoes can also crack from excessive moisture before they turn red. But still, most plants require watering at the rate of 10-15 l / m2 per week. Irrigation rates for ornamental crops are close to those for vegetables.

The main amount of water is absorbed by plants in spring and summer. Particular attention should be paid to watering when planting trees and shrubs, so that the soil tightly fits their roots. Plants outdoors in the summer are subject to natural drying under the influence of sunlight, although they receive enough moisture from winter precipitation. Interestingly, a layer of rainwater of 1 mm gives 10 m3 per 1 ha, that is, 10 tons. A snow cover 40 cm thick - 1000 tons of water per 1 ha, or 100 liters per 1 m2. It is necessary to ensure that the soil near walls, fences and under trees fully receives moisture, as there are certain difficulties in watering in these places. Plants in pots and tubs are prone to drying out quickly and need regular watering in summer.

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